It was a chain shift, meaning that each shift triggered a subsequent shift in the vowel system.
The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th.).
A clause is built around a verb and includes its constituents, such as any NPs and PPs.
Compared to European languages for which official organisations have promoted spelling reforms, English has spelling that is a less consistent indicator of pronunciation, and standard spellings of words that are more difficult to guess from knowing how a word is pronounced.The countries with the most native English speakers are, in descending order, the United States (at least 231 million the United Kingdom (60 million 71 Canada (19 million Australia (at least 17 million South Africa (4.8 million Ireland (4.2 million and New Zealand (3.7 million).Basic constituent order English word order has moved from the Germanic verb-second (V2) word order to being almost exclusively subjectverbobject (SVO).56 In terms of grammatical evolution, Modern English has now reached a stage where the loss of case is almost complete (case is now only found in pronouns, such as he and him, she and her, who and whom and where SVO word-order is mostly.English also has a rich set of auxiliary verbs, such as have and do, expressing the categories of mood and aspect.First, the waves of Norse colonisation of northern parts of the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries put Old English into intense contact with Old Norse, a North Germanic language.Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet.Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th.).The countries in which English is spoken can be grouped into different categories by how English is used in each country.We followed him up the steps into a large hall.This influence of English has led to concerns about language death, and to claims of linguistic imperialism, and has provoked resistance to the spread of English; however the number of speakers continues to increase because many people around the world think that English provides them.V n I followed the signs to Metrocity.Separate from GA are American dialects with clearly distinct sound systems, historically including Southern American English, English of the coastal Northeast (famously including Eastern New England English and New York City English and African American Vernacular English, all of which are historically non-rhotic.Syntax In the English sentence The cat sat on pinche puta what does that mean the mat, the subject is the cat (a NP the verb is sat, and on the mat is a prepositional phrase (composed of an NP the mat, and headed by the preposition on ).Today Irish English is divided into Ulster English, the Northern Ireland dialect with strong influence from Scots, as well as various dialects of the Republic of Ireland.Auxiliary verbs form main clauses, and the main verbs function as heads of a subordinate clause of the auxiliary verb.For example, he has to go where only the auxiliary verb have is inflected for time and the main verb to go is in the infinitive, or in a complement clause such as I saw him leave, where the main verb is to see which.Modern Irish English, however, has its roots in English colonisation in the 17th century.Shakespeare's works and Elizabethan pronunciation.Jespersen, Otto (2007) 1924.Within the United Kingdom, the Received Pronunciation (RP an educated dialect of South East England, is traditionally used as the broadcast standard and is considered the most prestigious of the British dialects.
English as a World Language.
Topic and focus can also be established through syntactic dislocation, either preposing or postposing the item to be focused on relative to the main clause.